Dr Ken Addison
Unprecedented rates of rapid climate & environmental change are beyond doubt and generate concern amongst the international community, corporations and governments. Virtually all human activities interrupt the operation of Earth's environmental systems and their observed consequences have increased with the size and technical prowess of human populations since later prehistory 10,000 years ago. Their impact on Earth's boundary layer ~ the instable envelope embracing the landsurface, lower atmosphere and oceans on which we and all other biological systems depend for our existence ~ is deliberate in part and inadvertent in others.
Global economic and political security depend on accurate scientific predictions of global environmental change, technological capacity to respond and political will to mitigate impacts. The 5th Assessment Report of the widely-respected Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 2013-14 emphasises our options for reducing environmental impacts or facing the consequences. 2008 global financial crises thwarted timely action and the 2009 Copenhagen Climate Summit failure and 2012 lack of a post-Kyoto accord, form a core part of the contemporary debate. Current excitement over natural gas fracking, tar-sand oil and Arctic Basin marine resources (made accessible by global warming) runs at variance with progress on renewable energy and threatens to push us into Dangerous Climate Change.
Why have global environmental crises arisen now? What triggered dramatic increases in environmental awareness, placing environmental issues on international agendas? How can we avoid or mitigate their effects; what happens if we cannot? The answers to these questions concern students and practitioners across socio-economic, political and natural sciences. Successful Earth Systems management and socio-economic and political stability demand we understand our environmental impact. Failure by wealthy industrialised nations to respond to environmental impacts of sustained development raises international tension amongst disadvantaged and marginalised nations.
The Option’s prime aim is to extend awareness and understanding of key global environmental crises facing the international community to students irrespective of their academic backgrounds. We identify the principal components and dynamics of natural environmental systems and the context of rapid natural climate and environmental changes of the continuing Quaternary ‘Ice Age’. We examine how industrial, agricultural and other activities of human societies interrupt their operation, generating environmental disturbance and change. Impacts leave tell-tale environmental signatures so an important early step is to evaluate the nature of surviving evidence for environmental impacts and changes.
Having established these cause-and-effect relationships, we examine several crucial aspects of global environmental crises, with particular perspectives from Britain and the European Union. This most heavily industrialized and populated zone on Earth, and its intensive agricultural systems, render it self-sufficient in temperate foods. It also possesses one of the longest continuous records of human occupation since the most recent world-wide glaciation. Much of the origins and consequences of rapid environmental change are found here.
Key Lectures and Seminars provide a general review of the principal themes, which students then explore in more detail in Tutorial essays or seminar papers, choosing a weekly topic from the list below:
Week 1: Nature & Context of Earth’s Climate & Environmental Systems
Key Illustrated Lecture : The Landscape legacy of the Late Quaternary Ice Age in Britain
Seminar/Tutorial : Archaeology & Geology ~ environmental detectives. Scientific & documentary evidence
of environmental change in the Landscape.
Week 2: Climate Change : past & present
Key Illustrated Lecture : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change : Science, Impacts & Mitigations
Seminar/Tutorial : Quaternary cold & temperate stages. Holocene climate ~ the past 10,000 yrs.
The Medieval Warm Epoch (c. AD 800-1300) & Little Ice Age (c. AD 1350- 1850).
Week 3: Global Climate Forecast to AD 2100
Key Illustrated Lecture : IPCC Global climate change forecasts to 2100 AD. The Anthropocene.
Seminar/Tutorial : “Greenhouse”enhancement. Ocean-Icesheet response. Atmosphere-Ocean circulation.
Week 4: Landsurface Impacts of Global Climate Change
Seminar : Earth-Atmosphere interactive systems ~ thermal, hydrologic & biospheric regimes & responses.
Tutorial : Sea level change & Coastline Management. Water Resources. Agriculture & the Biosphere. River Management & Slope Instability.
Week 5: Global Risk : Securing Earth’s Environmental Future
Seminar : Governance of the Environment.
Tutorial : International environmental treaties & protocols. Greenhouse emissions. Environmental protection, conservation & management. Sustainable Development.
Students undoubtedly benefit from referencing some/all of these general texts reading prior to arrival in Oxford, when more detailed lists accompany Tutorial essay titles are distributed.
Smithson, P., Addison, K. & Atkinson, K., 2008, Fundamentals of the Physical Environment, (4th Edtn.)
London: Routledge (ISBN 978-0-415-39516-8)
IPCC, 2007: Climate Change 2007: 4th Assessment Report. Working Group II ~ Impacts, Adaptation & Vulnerability Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Core Writing Team ], Cambridge(UK) & New York:
Cambridge University Press.(ISBN 978-0521-70597-4)
Peake, S. & Smith, J., 2009, Climate Change : From science to sustainability, (2nd Edtn.) Oxford: Oxford
University Press. (ISBN 978-0-19-956832-1)
Richardson, K., Steffen, W. & Liverman, D., 2011, Climate Change : Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. (ISBN 978-0-521-19836-3)
Stern, N. 2009, A Blueprint for a Safer Planet : How to Manage Climate Change, London: The Bodley
Head. (ISBN 97818-47920-386)
© Dr Ken Addison,St.Peter's College, University of Oxford: for 2017
A range of available Academic Courses and Options are available, see below, and follow the links for further information.
Intending participants select the Course of their choice and are then asked to elect to study one of its particular Options in order of preference. Most students are likely to secure their first-choice Option.
The Medieval Studies Course also has an Interdisciplinary Seminar studied by all participants, irrespective of their Option choice.
Option 1: Rediscovering Shakespeare
Option 2: Jane Austen in Text and Context
Option 3: The Inklings In Oxford (J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis et al.)
Option 4: Introduction to Topics in the English Language
Option 1: Climate Change: Global Risk & Management
Option 2: Environmental Change & British Landscape Development 11,500 BP -1700 AD
Residential Field Programme: The Development of British Landscapes (required for Environmentalists, Medievalists; optional for others)
Option 1: Conquest and Colonisation : England and her neighbours: 1016-1296
Option 2: Death, Nature and the Supernatural in Medieval Literature
Option 3: Medieval Margins: Identity and Otherness
Interdisciplinary Seminar: The Arthurian Tradition (required study taken by all Medievalists)